Periodontal diseases comprise inflammatory conditions that affect the supporting structures of the teeth like gingiva, bone and periodontal ligament, which could lead to tooth loss and contribute to systemic inflammation. Bacteria in the mouth, infect surrounding tissue of the tooth, leading to periodontal disease. When bacteria stay on the teeth surface long enough, form a film called plaque, which eventually hardens to calculus. In its early stage ( gingivitis), the gums can become swollen and red, and they may bleed. In its more serious form, called periodontitis, the gums can pull away from the tooth, bone can be lost, and the teeth may loosen or even fall out. The severity of the periodontal disease depends on environmental and host risk factors, both modifiable (for example, smoking) and non-modifiable (for example, genetic susceptibility).
The goal of periodontitis treatment is to thoroughly clean the pockets around teeth and prevent damage to surrounding bone. Less invasive procedures for treatment are scaling, root planing and use of topical or oral antibiotics. Advanced periodontitis, treatment may require dental surgery; like flap surgery, soft tissue grafts, bone grafting and guided tissue regeneration
Periodontitis is common but largely preventable. Brushing at least twice a day, flossing daily and getting regular dental checkups can greatly improve your chances of successful treatment for periodontitis and can also reduce your chance of developing it.